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Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Cheyne S M, Adul A, Ripoll Capilla B, Jeffers K A, Kulu I, Turnock S, Sugardjito J (2021): Mammals of the Natural Laboratory of Peat-Swamp Forest, Sebangau, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. v1.9. Borneo Nature Foundation. Dataset/Checklist. http://ipt.vertnet.org:8080/ipt/resource?r=bnf_cimtrop_sebangau_mammchklst_1993_2020&v=1.9
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Mammals; Checklist; NLPSF; Sebangau; Peatland; Kalimantan; Indonesia; Checklist; Derivedfromoccurrence
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Species presence records described here were collected in the 500 sq. km Natural Laboratory of Peat Swamp Forest, part of the 7,347 km2 Sebangau peat dome in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia (-2.3229083, 113.8938806). Sebangau is a truly ombrogenous peat swamp forest protected by its National Park status granted in 2004.
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [-2.345, 113.725], North East [-2.147, 113.928]|
The list represents all mammals in the Sebangau NLPSF area. All animals sighted and recorded were identified to species level.
|Start Date / End Date||1993-01-01 / 2021-01-01|
This research is a joint venture between the BNF, CIMTROP and the Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, University of Oxford and aims to facilitate the conservation of Borneo’s endangered wild cats by merging pioneering ecological research, host country capacity building and environmental education within Indonesia. All data were collected under permits issued by the Ministry of Research and Technology Indonesia (RISTEK/BRIN) and the Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI). Our research activities provide an insight into the relative abundance of each species, and the long-term impacts of various forest management practices on these little-known felids - information which is essential to facilitate the development of effective management and conservation measures. This initiative is currently the only research project focusing on the ecology of Borneo’s wild cats in Kalimantan. Additionally, this project is now the longest running felid and prey project in Kalimantan and we hope that with funding to continue this important project in the long-term (more than 6 years) we can make a significant contribution to the understanding of these elusive and charismatic species as well as facilitating training and capacity building for local scientists and communities. The objectives of this long-term project are: (i) To study the status, behaviour and ecology of the mammal species found in Sebangau. (ii) To investigate the density and population size. (iii) To investigate the community structure, niche partitioning and intra-guild relationships. (iv) To assess the impacts of habitat alteration and habitat requirements of mammals in the study area.
|Title||Supporting Conservation Through Mobilizing Ecological Data from Kalimantan, Indonesia|
|Funding||Collection of the species records described here has been made possible through financial support from a large number of sources over the years, among which we are particularly indebted to The Orangutan Project, Arcus Foundation, US Fish & Wildlife Service Great Apes Conservation Fund, The Robertson Foundation, the StOLT fund of SaveTheOrangutan and the Orangutan Land Trust, Orangutan Appeal UK, EAZA, Bioparcs Foundation, Orangutan Outreach, Orangutan Conservancy, Taronga Zoo, Riverbanks Zoo, Wallace Global Fund, Ocean Parks Conservation Foundation Hong Kong, Wildlife Conservation Society, Primate Conservation Inc., IFAW, Karen Hanssen Trust, the Rufford Foundation, Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium, Clouded Leopard Project, Fresno Chafee Zoo, and Panthera and Robertson Foundation (through WildCRU, University of Oxford).|
|Study Area Description||Data were collected in the 500 sq. km NLPSF, part of the 7,347 sq. km Sebangau peat dome in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. This site has been the focus of intensive research efforts on many aspects of peat swamp forest (PSF) ecology and management by the Centre for International Cooperation in Sustainable Management of Tropical Peatlands at the University of Palangka Raya (UPT LLG-CIMTROP UPR), the Universities of Nottingham and Leicester, Borneo Nature Foundation and other institutions since 1993. Sebangau is an ombrogenous peat swamp forest, i.e., it receives all its nutrients from aerial sources - rain, aerosols and dust (Page et al. 1999), except for the riverine margins which are almost entirely deforested. This has led to poor plant nutrition, resulting in fewer forest strata and a lower canopy height (15–25 m) than that found in forests on mineral soils (Page et al. 1999). The Sebangau catchment was selectively logged over a period of ~ 40 years by legal timber concessions and illegal hand-logging. The latter was particularly widespread and indiscriminate but was stopped in our research area by a locally led Community Patrol Team created in 2004 (Husson et al. 2015). The timber extraction canals (typically 1–2 m wide, 0.3–1.3 m deep and often extending many kilometres into the forest) dug into the peat by the illegal loggers remain, causing ongoing peat drainage, which has resulted in peat subsidence and a heightened dry-season fire risk (Harrison et al. 2009a). Exploitation of wildlife still occurs for some species in the area, including fishing (Yulentine et al. 2007), hunting of Pteropus vampyrus fruit bats (Struebig et al. 2007, Harrison et al. 2011a) and bearded pigs, and capture of green leafbirds for sale in local markets. This history of disturbance is typical of that experienced in most of southern Borneo’s “relatively intact” PSFs. Logging and fire have resulted in a patchwork of logged, recovering and pristine forest covering four habitat sub-types: mixed-swamp forest (MSF); transitional/MSF; low interior forest (LIF) and tall interior forest (Page et al. 1999, Morrogh-Bernard et al. 2003, Cheyne et al. 2008, Husson et al. 2015). • Mixed-swamp forest: found on the shallowest peat from the limits of river flooding to 5.5 km inland from the forest-edge. Characterised by intermediate tree size (15–25 m closed canopy height), species richness and ape population densities. Contains many commercial timber trees and consequently suffered relatively high logging disturbance. Its proximity to forest edge and greater accessibility leads to relatively high encroachment and hunting prevalence. • Low-pole forest: a relatively stunted, depauperate forest, found 5.5–10 km from the forest edge on peat of 6–10 m depth. Characterised by short tree size (12–15 m closed canopy), species richness and ape population densities. Contains few trees of commercial timber size and has consequently suffered little from direct logging disturbance. • Tall-interior forest: a productive, diverse forest, crowning the top of the dome on peat 10–13 m thick. Characterised by relatively tall trees (maximum 45 m upper canopy height), high species richness and ape population densities. Contains many commercial timber trees and has consequently suffered relatively high logging disturbance. • Very-low canopy forest: covers ~78 km at the highest point in the catchment. Characterised by permanently high-water table and very large pools up to 1 m deep, with few trees exceeding 1.5 m in height. Not sampled during this study, owing to extreme difficulty of access.|
|Design Description||Mammal species were confirmed as present through a combination of visual encounter surveys along line transects; camera trapping (Cheyne et al. 2010, Cheyne & MacDonald 2011); and ad hoc observations. The total number camera trap nights since data collection began in 2008 is currently more than 90,000 at the time of writing. Line transect survey effort was not recorded but represents a fairly low annual survey effort covering a period from at least 2001 to 2020. Records may show some bias against quieter and more discrete species. Bats were sampled through harp trapping over 15 trap nights (Struebig et al. 2006); these records are limited to those species flying in the forest understorey. Species were identified with the aid of appropriate field guides (Payne & Francis 1985) and consultation with external experts where necessary. Nomenclature follows these sources, plus Duckworth & Pine (2003) for mammals in general and Roos et al. (2014) for primates. Previously published accounts of species presence in the area (Page et al. 1997, Struebig et al. 2006, Hamamoto et al. 2007) were cross-checked against the above and various other published sources, our own unpublished records and with external experts, resulting in some additions, removals and alterations to species names provided in these previously published accounts of species presence in the NLPSF.|
The personnel involved in the project:
Camera traps were placed along established trails and, where possible, watering areas, located so as to maximise the success rate of photographic ‘detections’ (Wilting et al. 2006; Gordon & Stewart 2007; Cheyne et al. 2013). The total number camera trap nights since data collection began in 2008 and was more than 90,000 at the time of dataset publication. Two cameras were placed opposite each other, 7 to 10 m apart to create a paired station at each location with the aim of photographing each flank of the animal simultaneously. The passive infrared sensors were set at about 50 cm height. The cameras use an infrared flash. All cameras were placed along established trails at cross-roads and near fallen logs or man-made boardwalks, which may facilitate felid movements during the flooded wet season (further information in Cheyne et al. 2013). Additional mammal species were confirmed through visual encounter surveys along line transects and ad hoc observations. Line transect survey effort was not recorded, but represents a fairly low annual survey effort covering a period from at least 2001 to present. Records may show some bias against quieter and more discrete species. Bats were sampled through harp trapping over 15 trap nights (Struebig et al. 2006); these records are limited to those species flying in the forest understorey.
|Study Extent||This dataset is a part of the species presence records documented in the Natural Laboratory of Peat Swamp Forest (NLPSF), in the southern lowlands of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia (see Husson et al., 2018). This site has been the focus of intensive research efforts on many aspects of tropical peat-swamp forest ecology and management by the Centre for International Cooperation in Sustainable Management of Tropical Peatlands at the University of Palangka Raya (UPT CIMTROP UPR), the Universities of Nottingham and Leicester, the Borneo Nature Foundation and other institutions since 1993. Species presence records were assembled using a variety of different methods.|
|Quality Control||Cameras were ideally set in a grid system with ±1km between camera stations. Non-random deployment of camera traps may interact with non-random space-use by animals, causing biases in our inferences about relative abundance from detection frequencies alone (Wearn et al. 2013). This limitation was alleviated in the present study by surveying a large number of locations (more than 60), surveying all available habitats types and sub-types and having the camera traps active for a suitable period of time. Species were identified with the aid of appropriate field guides (Payne & Francis 1985) and consultation with external experts where necessary. Nomenclature follows these sources, plus Duckworth & Pine (2003) for mammals in general and Roos et al. (2014) for primates. Previously published accounts of species presence in the area (Page et al. 1997, Struebig et al. 2006, Hamamoto et al. 2007) were cross-checked against the above and various other published sources, our own unpublished records and with external experts, resulting in some additions, removals and alterations to species names provided in these previously published accounts of species presence in the NLPSF.|
Method step description:
- Mammals were surveyed through visual encounter surveys along line transects, camera trapping (Cheyne et al. 2010, Cheyne & MacDonald 2011) and ad hoc observations. Records may show some bias against quieter and more discreet species. Bats were sampled by harp trapping over 15 trap nights (Struebig et al. 2006); these records are limited to species flying in the forest understorey.
- Species were identified with the aid of appropriate field guides (D'Abrera 1985, Payne & Francis 1985, D’Abrera 1986, Kottelat et al. 1993, Bolton 1994, Inger & Stuebing 1997, Liat & Das 1999, Stuebing & Inger 1999, Deeleman-Reinhold 2001, Otsuka 2001, Orr 2003, Das 2004, Atack 2006, Myers 2009, Phillipps & Phillipps 2009, Thomas 2013, Koh & Tzi Ming 2014) and consultation with external experts where necessary. Nomenclature follows Wilson & Reeder (2005) and Duckworth & Pine (2003) for mammals, and Roos et al. (2014) for primates.
- Previously published accounts of species presence in the area (Page et al. 1997, Shepherd et al. 1997, Page et al. 1999, Struebig et al. 2006, Hamamoto et al. 2007, Mirmanto 2010, Haryono 2012, Houlihan et al. 2012, Dow & Silvius 2014, Schreven et al. 2014, Tremlett 2014, Thornton 2017) were cross-checked against the above and various other published sources along with our own unpublished records, as well as with external experts. This resulted in some additions, removals and alterations to species names provided in previously published accounts of species presence in Sebangau.
- Records for some groups include morpho-species within genera, for which species-level identifications could not be confirmed. These are included within our dataset to provide a rough indication of the potential number of species in these groups. We consider this preferable to completely omitting these records or only presenting figures for species with identification to species level confirmed beyond doubt, which would under-estimate the true number of species. Furthermore, all of our lists are very likely to be incomplete owing to the various sampling biases outlined above. All IUCN threat status assessments were current at the time of writing, and Indonesian protected status assessments were based on the newly updated government protected species list (MENLHK 2018).
- Husson, S. J., Limin, S. H., Boyd, N. S., Brousseau, J. J., Collier, S., Cheyne, S. M., D'Arcy, L. J., Dow, R. A. & Schreven, S. (2018). Biodiversity of the Sebangau tropical peat swamp forest, Indonesian Borneo. Mires and Peat, 22, 1-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00186-6
- Struebig, M. J., & Galdikas, B. M. (2006). Bat diversity in oligotrophic forests of southern Borneo. Oryx, 40(4), 447-455. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605306001190
- Adul, A., Ripoll, B., Limin, S. H., & Cheyne, S. M. (2015). Felids of Sebangau: camera trapping to estimate activity patterns and population abundance in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 16(2). 10.13057/biodiv/d160208
- Cheyne, S. M., Sastramidjaja, W. J., Rayadin, Y., & Macdonald, D. W. (2016). Mammalian communities as indicators of disturbance across Indonesian Borneo. Global ecology and conservation, 7, 157-173. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2016.06.002
- Cheyne, S. M., & Macdonald, D. W. (2010). Marbled cat in Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Indonesi-an Borneo. Cat News, 51, 18. http://www.outrop.com/uploads/7/2/4/9/7249041/cheyne__macdonald_2010_marbled_cat_news.pdf
- Cheyne, S. M., Morrogh-Bernard, H., & MacDonald, D. W. (2009). First flat-headed cat photo from Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Indonesian Borneo. Cat News, 51, 16. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.708.9698&rep=rep1&type=pdf
- Cheyne, S. M., Stark, D. J., Limin, S. H., & Macdonald, D. W. (2013). First estimates of population ecology and threats to Sunda clouded leopards Neofelis diardi in a peat-swamp forest, Indonesia. Endangered Species Research, 22(1), 1-9. doi: 10.3354/esr00525
- Jeffers, K. A., & Cheyne, S. M. (2019). Small cat surveys: 10 years of data from Central Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 11(4), 13478-13491. doi:10.11609/jott.44126.96.36.19978-13491