Aquatic insects, particularly members of the Order Odonata, have been long considered as good bioindicators for tracking response in ecosystem shifts and gradients, in both larval and adult life-staged (Valente-Neto, et al., 2016). In tropical regions, Odonata diversity can be high. The forests and peatlands of Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) are one area that accommodates a variety of Odonata species with high endemicity due to habitat diversification (Dolný et al., 2011; Dow & Silvius, 2014). One ecosystem that has not been explored extensively for its Odonata communities is the mixed-mosaic heath (kerangas) forests. Three previous studies on Odonata have been conducted in only heath forests in Indonesia (Orr, 2001; Orr, 2006; Purwanto et al., 2019). With this in mind, we conducted a preliminary study of the Odonata community in the mixed mosaic kerangas dominated forest of the Mungku Baru Education Forest (KHDTK) in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.
This research was led by Jorian A. Hendriks as part of his undergraduate thesis at the Maastricht University, Netherlands. The research contributes to a larger programme of documenting the biodiversity of and conserving this unique habitat type in Central Kalimantan undertaken by Borneo Nature Foundation (BNF) and Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya (UMP) who manage the KHDTK along with the local community of Mungku Baru. This research was conducted for a period of three months from November 2019 to February 2020. Data mobilization and publishing were supervised by BNF and the Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, through the Biodiversity Information Fund for Asia (BIFA). All activities were conducted under required permits from relevant local and national institutions in Indonesia.
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Jorian, A. Hendriks, Mariaty, Siti Maimunah, Namrata B. Anirudh, Brendan A. Holly, Roy. H. J. Erkens, Farah Dini, Tungga Dewi, Muhammad A. Imron and Mark E. Harrison
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Anisoptera; Central Kalimantan; Diversity; Habitat-heterogeneity; Indonesia; Kerangas; Morphology; Zygoptera.; Occurrence; Observation
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The data were collected from the Mungku Baru Education Forest (Kawasan Hutan Dengan Tujuan Khusus - KHDTK), Central Kalimantan, Indonesia (1.64445°S, 113.77398°E). This site is managed by Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangka Raya (UMPR) in collaboration with Borneo Nature Foundation Indonesia (BNF) and the local people of Mungku Baru village. The KHDTK forest spans 4,910 ha and lies in the western part of the more extensive Rungan forest landscape within the watershed between the Rungan and Kahayan Rivers. The Rungan landscape covers an area of over 150,000 ha, which administratively includes three Central Kalimantan districts; i.e., Kotamadya Palangka Raya, Kabupaten Gunung Mas, and Kabupaten Pulang Pisau. The ecosystem of Rungan landscape consists of a combination of distinct habitat types existing in a mosaic, including kerangas (heath), peat-swamp, and lowland Dipterocarp forests. Despite the majority of the forest in the landscape having no legal protection and being located near Palangka Raya City, the provincial capital of Central Kalimantan, the Rungan landscape supports diverse flora and fauna species, and is considered important for the conservation of threatened species such as the Bornean orangutan (Buckley et al., 2018; Hendriks, 2020).
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [-1.672, 113.6], North East [-1.588, 113.8]|
The dataset consists of the two sub-orders of Odonata, namely Anisoptera and Zygoptera. − Anisoptera: dataset consists of 2 families, 8 genera and 10 species. All captures were identified to species level − Zygoptera: dataset constitutes of 7 families, 11 genera and 9 species. All captures were identified to species level except for 4 which could only be identified to genus
|Suborder||Zygoptera (Damselfly), Anisoptera (Dragonfly)|
|Start Date / End Date||2019-12-07 / 2020-02-02|
This research is a part of intensive research efforts on many aspects of kerangas dominated lowland mixed mosaic habitat ecology and management by Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya and the Borneo Nature Foundation, and other institutions since 2016 in the Mungku Baru education forest (KHDTK) located in the Rungan Landscape, Central Kalimantan. The landscape that the research site lies in is also the largest un-protected forest block of the province, making it an extremely important area for targeted conservation efforts and long-term research. The forest is characteristic different interconnected habitat types, including heath (kerangas) and peat forest occurring within a mosaic. Owing to its unique habitat characteristics, these forests support a high level of diverse and endemic biodiversity and is an important local ecoregion. Odonata are a potential bioindicator organism which can be used to understand the ecological impact of restoration of disturbed habitats, and thus can help inform conservation efforts and management initiatives. The research also contributes to the paucity of literature on Odonata in tropical heath dominated habitats and helps understand species assemblages within a mosaic habitat structure.
|Title||Supporting Conservation Through Mobilising Ecological Data from Kalimantan, Indonesia|
|Funding||Fundatie van Renswoude|
|Study Area Description||The study area of the Mungku Baru KHDTK has two primary purposes, i.e., research and training. To attain these objectives, UMP in collaboration with BNF work on research and development within the KHDTK and the Mungku Baru village. Located approximately 5 km east of the village of Mungku Baru, the KHDTK is also under the village community's care. UMP and BNF’s ongoing conservation programs at the site include long-term research, capacity building, training activities, an anti-logging and community fire-fighting unit, plus community education, outreach, and sustainable development initiatives (Buckley et al., 2018; Hendriks, 2020). The KHDTK is surrounded by a logging concession in the north, a palm oil concession in the south. Despite, anthropogenic impacts, the area is rich in biodiversity including 32 mammal species (five cat and six primate species) and 118 avian species, of which several are endemic and protected species (Buckley et al., 2018). The area harbours one of the largest orangutan populations outside of a protected area, plus 17 species of herpetofauna, 28 fish, and 15 butterfly species that have been recorded (Buckley et al., 2018). The ecosystem of the KHDTK is dominated by kerangas (heath) and peat-swamp forest, with riverside forest occurring in narrow strips along the forest streams. Secondary/disturbed forest, grassland, bare land, and clearing also covers low percentage of the total KHDTK area. The site is situated at a low altitude (60 masl) with relatively gentle undulations underlying the transitions between habitat types. While the transects surveyed for Odonata were located in the relatively intact forest that is typical of the KHDTK, some areas have been affected by historical disturbance through logging, wildfire, strong winds and extraction of forest resources (Buckley et al., 2018; Hendriks, 2020).|
|Design Description||The aims of this study are to: (1) assess the utility of Odonata as a bioindicator for environmental degradation to inform tropical lowland heath (kerangas) dominated mosaic forest conservation and restoration efforts; (2) develop a better understanding of Odonata species composition and species richness in tropical heath dominated forest mosaic; and (3) investigate the interaction between Odonata communities and habitat-characteristics associated with habitat-types found in a tropical heath dominated mixed-mosaic habitat structure in Borneo. This information is expected to form a baseline to support the use of Odonata as a bio-indicator for assessing habitat degradation and restoration in the region, and to develop appropriate field methods in relation to this.|
The personnel involved in the project:
Two lines transects of 250 m in length and 0.5 m in width were surveyed for Odonata within each of the three habitat types (Kerangas, low pole peat and mixed swamp forest), resulting in six transects in total. Each transect was surveyed twice per day at 09:00 and 14:30 Western Indonesian Time, to coincide with the peak activity period of Odonata. To better represent habitat conditions and their impact on Odonata ecology, the transects included both water and open canopy areas for each habitat category. Throughout the study period, each transect was surveyed eight times. All Odonata spotted during surveys were captured using an aerial net. Each individual captured was marked (abdomen or wing with a permanent marker), photographed, and released at the site of capture. To ensure accurate identification, photographs were taken of the lateral, dorsal and ventral views, and close-ups taken of their anal appendage. The surveys were only conducted on clear days without rain. Any behaviours/activities such as feeding, mating, ovipositing, and tenerals were recorded as additional data. In such cases, individuals were not captured using nets but were still identified by sight to the species level when possible.
|Study Extent||The research was conducted in the the Forest Area for Special Purposes (KHDTK), Mungku Baru that covers 4,910 ha of a heath dominated mixed mosaic habitat type that is characteristic of the larger landscape that it is situated in. In this research, data collection was conducted in an existing transect system, where two transects were chosen in each of the three main distinguishable habitat types within the mosaic, i.e. Kerangas (K), Low pole peat forest (LP) and mixed swamp forest/stream edge forest (MSF).|
|Quality Control||1. Surveys were conducted based on best practice field guidelines for flying insect surveys (Pollard, 1975; Pollard, 1977; Walpole & Sheldon, 1999; Van Swaay, 2003; Oppel, 2006). 2. All data were collected using a standardised method (line transects with Odonata captured using aerial nets and released). Transects were fixed at 250 m in length and 0.5 m in width. Survey times and days were kept constant over the study period. 3. Specific field data sheets were prepared accommodating all relevant data for Odonata surveys, including species identification and recapture remarks, habitat type, environmental data, weather data, morphological measurements and demographics of each caught individual. 4. Data were recorded by trained personnel to minimise risk of death or damage to individuals during capture and to ensure consistency in data collection and quality. 5. The main field guide used for Odonata identification was developed for the nearby Sebangau National Park by B. Holly, I. Kulu and Iwan (2018) and 'A Guide to The Dragonflies of Borneo' by Orr and Hämäläinen (2003). Additional literature sources and researchers with past experience of surveying Odonata in the region (B. Holly, R. Dow) were consulted for assistance in identifying unknown species. Online biodiversity databases were also used in some cases (e.g. biodiversitylibrary.org). 6. Field data were inspected, cleaned and any taxonomical issue with respect to nomenclature were resolved. The data were transformed to the Darwin Core, ISO, UTF-8, and JSON standards and formats. To ensure the quality of the data, it was double checked by relevant project personnel.|
Method step description:
- Odonata were surveyed through walking transects of 250 m length using the aerial nets method to capture, identify, mark and release sighted individuals.
- Surveys were conducted twice a day at 09:00h and 14:30h, during the peak activity periods of Odonata
- Each adult Odonata sighted during surveys was captured, photographed, identified, marked and released at the site of capture.
- Weather data (categorized into sunny, cloudy, windy, rainy, and rain-laden clouds) was visually determined every 15 minutes. Surveys were not conducted during rain.
- Environmental data on the percentage of surface water, pH and temperature of surface water if present, surface water attribute (lotic, lentic or absent), incident light (direct or diffused) and canopy cover were recorded at each capture location within a 5 m diameter of the sight of capture and at every 25 m intervals on the transect.
- Unknown species were identified with the assistance of regional Odonata experts and identification reference guides.
- Data from tally sheets were digitized into Excel worksheet format and stored in a single electronic database. From the original dataset, data were cleaned and only relevant fields for this occurrence resource were retained.
- All scientific names and taxonomic validations were redone by the resource creator using GBIF backbone and Global Name Resolver to ensure the species names were accurate.
- Field notes form the original data were separated into four different remarks as per the Darwin Core Standard i.e., organismRemarks, identificationRemarks, occurrenceRemarks and eventRemarks .
- Measurement data were segregated and included in the DwC field dynamicProperties and taxonRemarks fields. The dynamicProperties contain environmental data such as percentage of surface water, pH, and temperature, whereas the taxonRemarks field includes morphological measurements of individual Odonata captured during surveys.
- All data in this dataset were standardized to ISO 8601, ISO 316-1-alpha-2, JSON, and Darwin Core standards.
- Data cleaning, transformation, and formatting involved using Microsoft Excel and Open Refine.
- Final steps for preparing this dataset were done by running it through the GBIF validator.
- Buckley, B. J. W., Capilla, B. R., Maimunah, S., Adul, Armadyanto, Boyd, N., … Harrison, M. E. (2018). Biodiversity, Forest Structure & Conservation Importance of the Mungku Baru Education Forest, Rungan, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Palangka Raya. www.borneonature.org
- Dolný, A., Bárta, D., Lhota, S., Rusdianto, & Drozd, P. (2011). Dragonflies (Odonata) in the Bornean rain forest as indicators of changes in biodiversity resulting from forest modification and destruction. Tropical Zoology, 24(1), 63–86.
- Dow, R. A., & Silvius, M. J. (2014). Results of an Odonata survey carried out in the peatlands of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, in 2012. Faunistic Studies in South-East Asian and Pacific Island Odonata, 7(January), 1–37.
- Hendriks, J. A. (2020). A Preliminary Study of Odonata Communities in a Mixed-Mosaic Habitat Structure in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia (Maastricht University). https://www.borneonaturefoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Hendriks-20-Odonata-in-mixed-mosaic-habitat-KHDTK-BSc.pdf
- Oppel, S. (2006) Using distance sampling to quantify Odonata density in tropical rainforests. International Journal of Odonatology, 9(1), 81-88 https://doi.org/10.1080/13887890.2006.9748265
- Orr, A. G. (2001). An annotated checklist of the Odonata of Brunei with ecological notes and descriptions of hitherto unknown males and larvae. International Journal of Odonatology, 4(2), 167-220. https://doi.org/10.1080/13887890.2001.9748168
- Orr, A. G. (2006). Odonata in Bornean tropical rain forest formations: diversity, endemicity and implications for conservation management. In: Adolfo Cordero Rivera (ed). Forest and Dragonflies, Fourth WDA International Symposium of Odonatology, Pontevedra (Spain), July 2005. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, pp. 51-78.
- Pollard, E. (1975). A method of assessing the abundance of butterflies in Monks WOod National Nature Reserve in 1973. Entomologist’s Gaz., 26, 79-88. CRID: 1571135649917380608
- Pollard, E. (1977). A method for assessing changes in the abundance of butterflies. Biological Conservation, 12(2), 115-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(77)90065-9
- Purwanto, P. B., Zaman, M. N., Akbar, M., & Arief, M. (2019, March). Study of Odonata Diversity in Kerangas Forest Sukadamai Village and Punai Beach Simpang Pesak, Belitung Timur. In Proceeding International Conference on Science and Engineering (Vol. 2, pp. 133-136). https://doi.org/10.14421/icse.v2.71
- Valente-Neto, F., De Oliveira Roque, F., Rodrigues, M. E., Juen, L., & Swan, C. M. (2016). Toward a practical use of Neotropical odonates as bioindicators: Testing congruence across taxonomic resolution and life stages. Ecological Indicators, 61, 952–959. 10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.10.052
- Van Swaay, C. A. M. (2003). Butterfly densities on line transects in The Netherlands from 1990-2001. Entomologische Berichten-Nederlandsche Entomologische Vereenigung, 63(4), 82-87
- Walpole, M. J., & Sheldon, I. R. (1999). Sampling butterflies in tropical rainforest: an evaluation of a transect walk method. Biological Conservation, 87(1), 85-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00037-8
|Purpose||As a part of the Sundaland Biodiversity Hotspot, Borneo is incredibly rich in biodiversity. Despite this, scientific knowledge of species distribution and habitat requirements across the island of Kalimantan remains extremely limited, owing to limited historical scientific attention and low accessibility of much of the data that does not exist, which frequently remains unpublished or buried in grey literature. This is reflected in peer-reviewed journals and the low number of records for the region in the GBIF database. Such low geographic and taxonomic biological data availability over such a large, biodiverse, variable area as Kalimantan hinders effective conservation planning at both site and landscape levels. Our goal in using and publishing resources on the GBIF database is to help enhance biodiversity research and conservation efforts in Kalimantan through increasing data availability for research analyses and to inform support evidence-based conservation policy decision making.|
|Maintenance Description||The published resource is part of a long-term biodiversity research and monitoring program in KHDTK, Mungku Bari, Central Kalimantan. Several individuals captured during surveys are not yet identified. For these reasons, we aim to update the published resource periodically to incorporate new data and taxonomic resolutions.|